Posts Tagged ‘engagement’

Looking Good and Cooperation

August 25, 2015

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Getting people to “pitch in” or engage can be a challenge.

Long ago, the “Pigouvian” approach to encouraging social cooperation was articulated by Arthur Pigou, a British economist. His idea was cooperation gets incented with  changes in price. For example, if we make water or energy more expensive or pay people to vaccinate their children. Costs are way to affect actions. Many times, though, people resist change even with higher prices. What we know now is that changing the material costs and benefits of cooperation appears to have limits.

What Promotes Cooperation?

Current research gives us some new ways to promote cooperation: they both build on social consciousness and the desire for a “good image.” They can be mutually reinforcing, too. One way is to raise visibility of people’s choices. An application of this? Donors are often cited in lists that recognize them at special events or in a public ad. Or, a pledge list is posted at a website.

Another option is to provide information about how others are behaving. This plays on a “keeping up with the Joneses” perspective. An example application? A California public utility sends homeowners comparable information about neighbors’ water use. People are eager to know if they are below, average or above. With no fondness, my husband recalls from his childhood a particular priest who published giving records of parishioner families. That example combines both visibility and comparability. Information can alter behavior, especially if toward a common goal.

Not all, but many people cooperate because they are concerned about appearances. Humans are social beings and deeply influenced by each other. People know that when they are observed doing good by others, then it benefits their reputation. This is why “true character” is best determined by what people do when unobserved.  And, it’s also why “herd behavior” can head in a constructive or destructive direction.

Leaders Offer Clear Right Actions

Norms (or the “right actions”) are a powerful influence and act as both an incentive and deterrent. Knowing why social interventions are effective can help guide policies and practices, regardless of sector. Setting defaults for noncooperation is becoming more common. For example, a suggested fee or donation pressures a participant to contribute or they must actively opt out (often, in a publicly observed setting). This same phenomenon occurs at church when the offering bowl is passed down the pew. Or, when a company automatically withholds a designated portion of salary for a benefit matching program and requires intentional action by non-participants. Because norms set clear guidance regarding standards for performance of individuals, disciplined attention to them is a vital lever in your organization (as well as home and community).

Influentials  First, Then Perceptions

Remember this as you seek highly engaged peers, team members, donors and volunteers. Making people feel more accountable supports cooperation. Being observed, making participation visible, and a clear display of “example” has substantial effect. What matters hugely are the “right actions” displayed by influentials. They shout what’s appropriate and what will get applause. It is the foundation for what matters to most people – the opinions of others.

Lisa Wyatt, Ed.D. is chief strategy officer and partner in Phillips Wyatt Knowlton, Inc. PWK is a performance management resource for systems and social change with clients worldwide. Lisa has cross-sector and international experience. She is an author and W.K. Kellogg Leadership Fellow. See: www.pwkinc.com

Avoid Strategy Sabotage

October 22, 2012

A primary challenge in strategy development is anticipating the future – correctly. It’s a tall order. Strategy creates public and private value. It’s central to every organization and team.

Determining the actions most likely to secure your intended results employs strategic planning. Creating strategy, for a program or entire organization, generally requires a series of explicit steps. While a routine function, the process of strategy development offers plenty of opportunity for error.

In this list, I’ve noted the most common “sins.” Consider these as you guard against missteps and improve the quality of your strategy development.

1. Failure to know where you are now. Clarity about your current situation is essential if you are pointing towards a new target. Strategy has everything to do with decisions about the optimal route for the outcome you intend. If you don’t know the current situation then you have no good data on how to create forward action. Shaky ground isn’t equal to a solid foundation – so it’s vital to get this part right.

2. Difficulty in detecting patterns. Your “read” of the context and forecast for the future is important to analysis, interpretation and application. Seeing patterns and anticipating new ones are vital to strategy development. Testing whether others “see” things the same or different and knowing why is a good idea.

3. Lack of choice points. A clear specification of issues and their perceived implications are vital in strategy development. Framing both the challenges which impede progress and the context which will catalyze motion are critical to decisions about forward actions.

4. Unwillingness to acknowledge bias. We all have opinions and perspectives based on prior experience and training. How deeply these are held and whether we can accommodate and explore new mental models affects the discussions and review of strategy. Being aware of bias can mitigate it.

5. Absence of actionable measures. A few and the right measures are important as touchstones for determining progress. To inform decisions or actions, measurement must be part of any strategy. It provides feedback data to confirm existing direction and to indicate necessary course corrections. Winston Churchill said it.” However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results.”

6. Reluctance to review capacity. It’s possible to desire a new outcome, but the potential for achieving it relies heavily on what assets your program or organization has in hand for execution. Do you have the skillful talent integral to the work ahead as well along with the financial resources and time to make results a real possibility? An “internal audit” will surface both needs and assumptions about organization/team capacity that are key to strategy success.

7. Inadequate engagement. Who participates in strategy development matters a lot. It’s also vital to the subsequent socialization and implementation of strategy. Be sure dissent and minority opinions are aired to “kick” strategy. Careful consideration should be given to who participates and when in your process.

Lisa Wyatt, Ed. D. is chief strategy officer and partner in Phillip Wyatt Knowlton, Inc. PWK is a performance management resource for systems change with clients worldwide. Lisa has cross-sector and international experience. She is an author and W.K. Kellogg Leadership Fellow. See : www.pwkinc.com.

Great Questions – Better Strategy

September 18, 2011

Asking great questions is a powerful technique for many reasons.

Because strategy is a fundamental issue in any organization’s performance – asking the right questions can be critical in assessing strengths, confusion and inefficiencies.

Seven Strategy Questions

Harvard professor Charles Williams wrote Seven Strategy Questions: A Simple Approach for Better Execution. Here, I’ve adapted his questions to address multiple sectors.

 1. Who is your organization’s target audience – the primary beneficiary of the value you seek to create?

2. How do organization values influence prioritization of stakeholders?

3. Which performance variables are most influential and are they carefully monitored?

4. What do you signal is in or out with the choices you make?

5. How are you ensuring connections inside your organization with external realities?

6. Is employee commitment to help each other robust?

7. What difficult uncertainties cause persistent, sleepless anxiety for leadership?

Application

If you and others answer these questions – the same – your strategy will be better and shared. Ask them often, as needed, change the answers. Williams has advice about how to ask questions. He suggests questions are:

Posed face-to-face to encourage authentic engagement.

Asked throughout the organization, not just at the top.

Essential tools for functional leaders since they are central to performance.

A vital way to debate what is right, not who is right.

A prompt for new actions.

Question  Avoidance

When it’s not safe or appropriate to ask questions openly, performance suffers. Symptoms can include poor coordination, confusion, redundancy, and low achievement. Communities, organizations and people unwilling or unable to ask questions pose special challenges. This often indicates a lack of accountability. Performance doesn’t matter enough.

We spend lots of time generating questions, thinking about them, seeking answers to them with and for others. They’re central to our enterprise. Questions about strategy are an important feature of a high-performance culture. They can provoke thinking, decisions and action. Welcome them. Learn from them.

Lisa Wyatt Knowlton, Ed. D. is a partner in Phillip Wyatt Knowlton, Inc. PWK is a performance management resource for systems and social change with clients worldwide. She is also an author and  W.K. Kellogg Leadership Fellow. For more, see : www.pwkinc.com


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